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Liturgy / Prayer Book (Siddur)
scott allen Wrote:Thank you that was very helpful.  That clears some misunderstanding for me.  I knew there were different offerings, but not clear how a gentile might partake in the process.
So my next question is:  How did a Noahide approach to be able to give a sacrificial offering?  And at what time of day would this have  taken place?

The sacrificial offerings from individuals could be brought to an officiating Priest for slaughter in the Temple courtyard and sprinkling of the blood on the alter during the daytime, between sunrise and sunset.

The type of offering brought by a Gentile was a "burnt offering" which he or she had vowed or pledged to bring to the Holy Temple. For a burnt offering, the entire body of the animal was burned on the alter, i.e. it was offered entirely to G-d, without any part being eaten by the Gentile or by the officiating Priest (Kohein). Note for example the sacrifices brought by Abel (Gen. 4:4) and Noah (Gen. 8:20). Also see our web page

scott allen Wrote:Also, what would the sacrifice have been for?  Sin, thanksgiving.... what?

The Hebrew word for a sacrificial offering ("korban") has the same root as the word which means "to come close." The burnt offering was an expression of the individual's desire to more completely dedicate himself to being close to G-d and to fulfilling G-d's Will.

Even if a Gentile brought a sacrifice as a personal "peace offering," i.e. an offering in celebration or for giving thanks to G-d, it was offered as a burnt offering.

scott allen Wrote:Does a Noahide also participate, albeit in a limited fashion, on Yom Kippur?  Sorry if the question has already been asked.  I'm like a dry sponge here, just soaking in information.

Please see our Forum thread titled "Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur,"
What about the morning blessings such as "girds Israel with strength" and "crowns Israel with splendor" when you put on a belt and hat respectively?

Should we not say those as Noachides?
The "morning blessings" that you are referring to are liturgical Jewish blessings, which are meant to be a series of blessings of *thanks* from the Jews for a number of blessings which G-d bestowed upon them. For example, the blessings you mentioned, "girds Israel with strength" and "crowns Israel with splendor," are meant to include thanks to G-d from the Jews for receiving the commandments to wear the tefillin of the arm and the tefillin of the head, respectively. Since Noahides did not receive those commandments, it would not be appropriate for a Noahide to recite these blessings exactly, with the inclusion of G-d's holy Names and His Kingship. For the reasons cited it is not even intellectually appropriate for a Noahide to recite them without mentioning G-d's Names, because it would be blessing G-d for not giving you commandment.

Furthermore, the Sages instituted the liturgical morning blessings as a requirement for Jewish men, because Jewish men are required to recite a minimum of 100 liturgical Jewish blessings per day, as a decree from King David. Reciting the morning blessings helps a Jewish man to reach the count of 100 daily blessings.

A Noahide does not have this requirement, and the meritorious trait of fearing and honoring G-d includes being hesitant to speak His name, unless one is obligated to, or if it is part of a verse of the Hebrew Bible that was revealed to us as G-d's word by His true prophets (which can be used in prayer), or if doing so will bring Him more recognition and honor in the mind of the person you are speaking to (example: "How are you?" -- "I'm doing well, thank G-d").

This is not at odds with the fact that it is praisworthy for a person to bless and thank G-d for all the good that one receives. Intellectually, it's clear that a person should thank and bless G-d's name for the food that one eats, and likewise for fulfilling any of his needs for his sustained existence. Thus, it's proper to ask G-d for enough sustenance, and to say words of praise and thanks for one's food and drink, before and after eating. For this, it is permissible for a Noahide to recite the short liturgical Jewish blessings over food. since they were instituted for that purpose (e.g., before eating bread, "Blessed are You, L-rd our G-d, King of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth"). See also these web page on Noahide Prayer:

It can be difficult to focus on the words of written prayer, such as psalms.

If a non-Jew is unfocused in written prayer and is more comfortable speaking with HaShem in his own words, is this always the preferred manner of prayer?

Will there still be a reason for a non-Jew to labor in concentrating on written prayer?
This is dependent on the thoughts and feelings of the particular person, at any particular time. For a Gentile, the option is always available to pray to HaShem/G-d in one's own words, and often that will be a most appropriate way to express one's prayerful requests to G-d that He will fulfill the specific needs that one has.
Director Michael Wrote:1) First of all, the prayers of Noahides should be based on, and consistent with, human intellect. This means that they should pray only in a language in which they understand all the words they are saying. Many of the points below also follow from this basic principle.

2) The text of the Siddur (the traditional Orthodox Jewish prayer book, which comes in several versions that have only slight variations) may be used as an optional general guide for Noahides. But all Noahides should know and have complete faith that they can freely change, reduce, or add prayers to G-d in their own spontaneous words, from the feelings of their own heart and the understanding of their own intellect. There is no obligation for a Noahide to say any specifically worded prayers in any specific order.

I was wondering after reading this again what your thoughts (and those of the rabis) would be if a liturgist created a "Noahide-orientated siddur" (perhaps with the help of a qualified halacha authority) Obviously nothing would be mandatory and the prayers would have to follow the specifications stated; it wouldn't necesarily be exclusively Noahide considering many find inspiration (and rightly so) in the Hebrew prayers (or those you provide based off of them such as the "Noahide wedding text" or "Noahide Amidah" provided on your website), but such a book wouldn't be halachically suspect, would it?
"Siddur" is a Hebrew word that implies "order" - i.e., the fixed order of the traditional Jewish prayer liturgy that was fixed by the Jewish Sages, that corresponds to (a) the order of the 3 daily prayer services that were instituted for the Jewish people by their forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and (b) the order of the regular daily and special sacrificial offerings that were brought in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. Since neither of these apply for Noahides, the title "siddur" is technically not appropriate for a non-mandatory Noahide-oriented liturgy (also because the name would give the impression that there IS, or should be, some fixed order of prayers for Noahides, which is not the case).

However, many Noahides do want to have a book of recommended prayers (in addition to the Book of Psalms), and Ask Noah's expert halachic (Torah-Law) authorities, Rabbi Moshe Weiner of Jerusalem and Rabbi J. Immanuel Schochet, o.b.m., of Toronto, have authorized a pocket-sized booklet of recommended prayers and blessings for Noahides. This has been published by Ask Noah International, with the title "Prayers, Blessings, Principles of Faith, and Divine Service for Noahides." This is available from several distributors, and from our web page

Here is the Table of Contents:

Part 1
Principles of Faith and Divine Service
- Awareness of G-d
- Serving G-d with One’s Mind and Heart
- The Power of Personal Repentance

Part 2
Prayers and Blessings
- Suggested Daily Prayers:
Daytime Prayers
Evening Prayers
- Blessings Before Eating or Drinking
- Other Blessings
- Rules of Blessings Before Eating
- Grace after a Meal
- 7 Verses for Noahide Children to Learn

Part 3
Prayers for Specific Needs and Requests
- Prayer for Livelihood
- Prayer for Travelers
- Prayer for a Sick Person
- Prayer for a Newborn Gentile Baby
- Prayer for a Departed Soul
Director Michael Wrote:the order of the 3 daily prayer services...were instituted for the Jewish people by their forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob

I hope that my genealogical knowledge is correct here. As a European, I consider myself a de facto Edomite, in addition to my more immediate national heritage. In light of this, I consider Abraham and Isaac as my "fathers", as it were, and Israel as my "brother", as it were. Are there any additional obligations for praying services incumbent on Edomite Noahides, such as the 3 daily prayers mentioned above? I imagine the answer lies in the fact that these were instituted specifically for the Jewish people, and although Edom was a born Jew, his descendants have forfeited any such obligation.
Hrvatski Noahid Wrote:Are there any additional obligations for praying services incumbent on Edomite Noahides, such as the 3 daily prayers mentioned above? I imagine the answer lies in the fact that these were instituted specifically for the Jewish people, and although Edom was a born Jew, his descendants have forfeited any such obligation.

Yes, Edom/Esau was born to Isaac and Rebecca with a quality of "spiritual Jewishness," as was his twin brother Jacob, but he separated himself spiritually from this heritage, and he married idolatrous Canaanite wives. Like other Gentiles, his descendants are not obligated in the unique Abrahamic/Israelite commandments or spiritual traditions.

However, the world's advance toward the imminent coming of the Messianic Era depends on the destined spiritual refinement of all the Gentile nations in general, and in particular those who are the physical and/or spiritual Edomites of our time. This was explained in this discourse by the Rebbe in 19'90:

A brief except of this discourse:
"[The Torah] emphasizes that there is an advantage to the service of the Gentile and that this advantage can be achieved through the service of the Jews [by their teaching the Torah's Seven Noahide Commandments to the nations of the world]. Indeed, the most complete level of a Jew's service must include these activities as well. This prepares the world for the revelation of G-d's sovereignty and the advent of the era when 'I will make the peoples pure of speech, that they will all call on the Name of G-d and serve Him with a single purpose.' [Zephaniah 3:9]"

Is it proper for a Noahide to say any or all of the Pesukei D'Zimrah?

Thank you!

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